But most are due to failing to understand cattle. One golden rule is that if have have a dog with you, cattle may attack. Let the dog go, it will survive, then make your own way out of the field. If you hold on to it you may not survive - a most common cause of cattle death is holding on to the dog.
Cows with calves will be challenging but field cattle hate sudden movements and noise. Most British cattle are easily spooked - stamp the ground hard and wave any poles or sticks you may have and they will generally run for it. I have had bulls run away and hide - my daughter couldn’t believe it.
The only cattle you can not scare is a rampant bull after an in season cow. Having been with about 8 others hanging on to a rampant Aberdeen Angus in pursuit of a Friesian cow, even with a firm link to the nose ring, that is a hard job.
There are of course rules about bulls in England and Wales http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais17ew.pdf and I have made several effective complaints and in one case I am afraid the bull ended up as meat.
Of course my comments are UK specific and I would not make any recommendations elsewhere.